Sustainable Agricultural Production

Clearing of forest land for agriculture and use of chemical fertilisers has made agriculture one of the drivers of deforestation and degradation of land. Changing to greener farming practices requires funding as farmers move away from chemical fertilisers and pesticides possibly leading to an initial drop in production. With consumers willing to pay higher prices for organic produce in the cities, it is important to design a supply chain where this benefit is passed on to the farmer in the form of higher prices so that there is an incentive to convert more land to sustainable practices.

By promoting healthy soils and renewing land through natural means, sustainable agriculture can help restore wildlife populations and protect the livelihoods of many millions of people. These sustainable practices can increase biodiversity, supporting healthy ecosystems and resilient food systems. Sustainable agriculture provides a holistic approach to addressing the requirements of the current generation without jeopardizing future generations’ ability to meet their own needs by adopting techniques that promote ecological balance, social equality, and long-term profitability.


The enormous amounts of waste produced by our modern society is an ever-increasing problem as higher levels of development seem to lead to more waste being produced as consumption increases. While the consensus is that we should aim to produce less waste by embracing a more ‘circular economy’ approach to production, it is generally understood that humans and animals will keep producing waste. When waste is not properly managed or it is burned into the atmosphere, it endangers the environment and human health. Furthermore, organic waste generates large amounts of methane as it decomposes. To reduce GHG emissions, the pollution of the air and freshwater, organic waste can be utilized to produce biogas.

In recent years, biogas has become increasingly popular as a more sustainable alternative fuel. This is the methane that is produced when organic matter is broken down through anaerobic digestion, such as in landfills or “digesters” that convert animal manure, food waste or other agricultural waste. This methane can then be utilized to replace natural gas that is produced through conventional means which can be used to generate electricity or fuels for domestic use. Biogas is a more sustainable option when compared to extraction of natural gas.